Antiretroviral Effect of Combination of Ethanol Extract from Leaves of Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata
Author : Fatan Umbara, Silmi Mariya, Uus Saepuloh, Joko Pamungkas, Irma H Suparto
Ethanol extract of Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata leaves individually has been reported to have antiviral activities. Combination of both plants in a formulated form to increase the antiretroviral potency have never been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of combined ethanol extracts of P. guajava and A. paniculata leaves as antiretroviral to Simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2). The source of SRV-2 was from Macaca fascicularis inoculated in A549 cells. This virus can be used as a model for human immunodeficiency virus that caused (acquired) immunodeficiency syndrome. Leaves of both plants were macerated in 96% ethanol then dried with rotary evaporator. Formula of both extracts were used in this study with different ratios and analyzed with MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method to determine the cytotoxicity on non infected A549 cells. The ratio of P. guajava and A. paniculata with minimal toxicity was three parts of P.guajava and one part of A. paniculata at concentrations less than 125 ppm. These concentrations of the extract formula were then added to A549 infected cells compared to lamivudine as control. The supernatants were collected on day-1, 3 and 5 to evaluate the viral replication. Based on the copy number of SRV-2 using real time–Polymerase Chain Reaction, the formula showed highest inhibition (99.96%) at concentration of 125 ppm on the fifth day. This result showed that the P. guajava and A. paniculata with ratio of 3:1 was most potential as antiretroviral compared to lamivudine, a generic antiretroviral drug.
Key words: Psidium guajava, Andrographis paniculata, combination, cycle threshold, antiretroviral