Macaca fascicularis synonymous with long-tailed macaque (Long Tailed Monkey), cynomolgus monkey and crab-eating monkey native to Southeast Asia (Indonesian, Malaysia, Philipines). In Indonesia they are widely distributed in Sumatera, Java, Bali, and Kalimantan. They live in social group as diurnal and arboreal, locomotion quadrupedal, swim well and jump into water from nearby tress. The male dominance hieracrchy is less marked than in other macaque. Tension after an aggresive interactions is indicated by increased levels of self grooming, body shaking and scratching. The body of M. fascicularis varies from gray to reddish brown with lighter underparts. The hair on the crown of the head grows directly backward often resulting in the point crest. The face is pinkish, males have cheek whiskers and a mustache; females have a beard and infant born black. The body length of the adult, which varies among subspecies, is 38–55 cm with relatively short arms and legs. Males are considerably larger than females, weighing 5–9 kg compared to the 3–6 kg of females. Their habitat in primary and secondary coastal, magrove, swamp, and riverine forest up to 2000 m above sea level, they tolerant of human and maybe found near villages. The diet are fruit, 64% fruits, buds, leaves other plant parts and animal prey such as insect, frogs and crabs. In the forest these macaques have the contact call is a coo, the warning call is ‘raucous rattle’ and the threat call is a shrill scream ending in rattle. The juvenile alarm call is a short scream.
The daily time budget and movement patterns of long-tailed macaques involve traveling, feeding, resting and socializing. Long-tailed macaques have a home range size of about 1.25 km² and daily path length varies greatly between 150 and 1900 m. After the midday period of rest, long-tailed macaques continue to search for food and feed as they move closer to their sleeping trees. They enter the sleeping trees in the early evening, between 6:00 and 6:30 p.m. and stay there for the night.
M. fascicularis have been widely used in Biomedical Research for studies of pharmacology, drug development, drug testing, and toxicology. They also show a valuable pattern of lipoprotein and other cardiovascular responses to dietary cholesterol, dietary fat, and other risk factors responses to infectious disease, metabolic disorders such as diabetes and osteoporosis.
Editor : Silmi Mariya
Photo : Entang Iskandar
Rowe N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press, East Hampton, NEW
Bennet BT, Abee CR, and Hendrickson R. 1995. Non Human Primates in Biomedical Research. Biology and Management. Academic Press. San Diego.